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Multilateration is a technique used in
navigation, surveillance, and positioning systems to determine the
location of an object by measuring the time or phase differences of
signals received from multiple known reference points.

3D multilateration extends this concept into three-dimensional space, allowing for the determination of the object's position in three dimensions.

3D multilateration systems are commonly used in air traffic control, maritime navigation, mobile phone localization, and asset tracking. They offer advantages such as high accuracy, robustness against signal interference, and compatibility with existing infrastructure. However, they may require precise synchronization of reference point signals and sophisticated signal processing algorithms to handle measurement errors and environmental factors.

Here's how it generally works:

**Reference Points:** Like in traditional multilateration, the
system relies on multiple reference points with known locations in
three-dimensional space. These reference points can be ground-based
stations, satellites, or other fixed objects equipped with transmitters.

**Signal Transmission:** Each reference point continuously emits
signals, such as radio waves or light pulses, at precisely known times
or frequencies.

**Signal Reception:** The object being located receives these signals
and measures the time or phase differences between the signals arriving
from each reference point. In some cases, the object may also need to
transmit a response signal back to the reference points.

**Time or Phase Differences:** By comparing the time or phase
differences of the received signals, the system calculates the object's
distance from each reference point. These measurements are often based
on the speed of propagation of the signals through the medium (e.g.,
speed of light).

**Trilateration or Multilateration:** Once the distances to multiple
reference points are determined, the system uses trilateration or
multilateration algorithms to calculate the object's precise position
in three-dimensional space. Trilateration involves using distance
measurements to determine the object's position by intersecting spheres
or other geometric shapes. Multilateration extends this concept to more
than three reference points, allowing for greater accuracy and redundancy.

**Coordinate Calculation:** The system computes the object's coordinates
(latitude, longitude, and altitude) based on the distances to the
reference points and their known locations.